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Searched for: REACTOME AND RNA Polymerase II Transcription Elongation [All Organisms, All Data Sources]

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Pathways (136)Molecules (102)
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Pathway: Formation of the Early Elongation Complex  from Reactome  [48 molecules]
Authored: Gopinathrao, G, 2004-05-06 22:00:00.

Summary:  Authored: Gopinathrao, G, 2004-05-06 22:00:00

  • ... Transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is controlled by a number of trans-acting transcription elongation factors as well as by cis. ... transcription elongation through binding to a DRB sensitivity-inducing factor/RNA polymerase II.
  • Control of elongation by RNA polymerase II.
  • Formation of the Early Elongation Complex ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
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Pathway: RNA Polymerase II Transcription Elongation  from Reactome  [73 molecules]
The mechanisms governing the process of elongation during eukaryotic mRNA synthesis are being unraveled by recent studies.

Summary:  The mechanisms governing the process of elongation during eukaryotic mRNA synthesis are being unraveled by recent studies. These studies have led to the expected discovery of a diverse collection of transcription factors that directly regulate the activities of RNA Polymerase II and unexpected discovery of roles for many elongation factors in other basic processes like DNA repair, recombination, etc. The transcription machinery and structural features of the major RNA polymerases are conserved across species. The genes active during elongation fall under different classes like, housekeeping, cell-cycle regulated, development and differentiation specific genes etc. The list of genes involved in elongation has been growing in recent times, and include: -TFIIS,DSIF, NELF, P-Tefb etc. that are involved in drug induced or sequence-dependent arrest - TFIIF, ELL, elongin, elongator etc. that are involved in increasing the catalytic rate of elongation by altering the Km and/or the Vmax of Pol II -FACT, Paf1 and other factors that are involved chromatin modification - DNA repair proteins, RNA processing and export factors, the 19S proteasome and a host of other factors like Spt5-Spt5, Paf1, and NELF complexes, FCP1P etc. (Arndt and Kane, 2003). Elongation also represents processive phase of transcription in which the activities of several mRNA processing factors are coupled to transcription through their binding to RNA polymerase (Pol II). One of the key events that enables this interaction is the differential phosphorylation of Pol II CTD. Phosphorylation pattern of CTD changes during transcription, most significantly at the beginning and during elongation process. TFIIH-dependent Ser5 phosphorylation is observed primarily at promoter regions while P-Tefb mediated Ser2 phosphorylation is seen mainly in the coding regions, during elongation. Experimental evidence suggests a dynamic association of RNA processing factors with differently modified forms of the polymerase during the transcription cycle. (Komarnitsky et al., 2000). [Komarnitsky et al 2000, Arndt & Kane 2003, Shilatifard et al 2003]

  • ... RNA Polymerase II Transcription Elongation ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • ... RNA Polymerase II Transcription Elongation 271828. ... of transcription factors that directly regulate the activities of RNA Polymerase II and unexpected. ... to transcription through their binding to RNA polymerase (Pol II).
  • Different phosphorylated forms of RNA polymerase II ...
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Pathway: Formation of RNA Pol II elongation complex  from Reactome  [62 molecules]
TFIIS is a transcription factor involved in different phases of transcription, occurring in a major ubiquitous form and other tissue specific forms.

Summary:  TFIIS is a transcription factor involved in different phases of transcription, occurring in a major ubiquitous form and other tissue specific forms. TFIIS stimulates RNA Pol II complex out of elongation arrest.

  • Formation of RNA Pol II elongation complex ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • Formation of RNA Pol II elongation complex 271828. ... contribute to the formation of a processive elongation complex centered around the RNA Pol II complex positioned on the DNA:RNA hybrid. ... This enables the RNA Pol II elongation complex to function.
  • The RNA polymerase II ...
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Pathway: Abortive elongation of HIV-1 transcript in the absence of Tat  from Reactome  [35 molecules]
This event was inferred from the corresponding Reactome human Poll II transcription elongation event.

Summary:  This event was inferred from the corresponding Reactome human Poll II transcription elongation event. The details specific to HIV-1 transcription elongation are described below. In the absence of the HIV-1 Tat protein, the RNA Pol II complexes associated with the HIV-1 template are non-processive. RNA Pol II is arrested after promoter clearance by the negative transcriptional elongation factors DSIF and NELF as occurs during early elongation of endogenous templates (Wada et al, 1998; Yamaguchi et al. 1999). This arrest cannot be overcome by P-TEFb mediated phosphorylation in the absence of Tat however, and elongation aborts resulting in the accumulation of short transcripts (Kao et al., 1987).

  • ... RD, cooperates with DSIF to repress RNA polymerase II elongation ...
  • ... Reactome stable. ... elongation factor that regulates RNA polymerase II processivity, is composed of human Spt4 and Spt5. ... Poll II transcription elongation event. ... The details specific to HIV-1 transcription elongation are described below. ... In the absence of the HIV-1 Tat protein, the RNA Pol II complexes associated. ...Abortive elongation of HIV-1 transcript in the absence of Tat ...
  • ... Reactome ...
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Pathway: Formation of the HIV-1 Early Elongation Complex  from Reactome  [53 molecules]
Edited: Matthews, L, 2005-07-26 23:29:22.

Summary:  Edited: Matthews, L, 2005-07-26 23:29:22

  • ... with RNA Pol II, and formation of DSIF:NELF:HIV-1 early elongation complex as described below. ... specific for the heptapeptide repeat of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, stimulates transcription elongation.
  • ... Reactome stable identifier. ... to a DRB sensitivity-inducing factor/RNA polymerase II complex and RNA.
  • Formation of the HIV-1 Early Elongation Complex ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
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Pathway: RNA Polymerase III Transcription  from Reactome  [70 molecules]
Authored: Hernandez, N, 2003-09-11 07:42:29.

Summary:  Authored: Hernandez, N, 2003-09-11 07:42:29

  • ... RNA Polymerase III Transcription ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • Authored: Hernandez. ... of RNA polymerase II elongation, whereas some others have still unknown functions. ... Like other RNA. ..., and associated proteins mediate selective transcription by RNA polymerase III of genes with upstream.
  • ... RNA polymerase III Transcription Complexes ...
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Pathway: RNA Polymerase II Pre-transcription Events  from Reactome  [101 molecules]
  • ... RNA Polymerase II Pre-transcription Events ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • ... Reactome stable identifier. ... Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www. ...reactome.
  • ... REACTOME ...
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Pathway: RNA Polymerase II Transcription Initiation And Promoter Clearance  from Reactome  [76 molecules]
  • ... RNA Polymerase II Transcription Initiation And Promoter Clearance ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • ... Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www. ...reactome.
  • ... REACTOME DATABASE ID ...
  • ... Reactome stable identifier.
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Pathway: Post-Elongation Processing of the Transcript  from Reactome  [90 molecules]
Post-transcriptional splicing of introns is affected neither by the elongating properties of RNA polymerase II, nor by the binding of splicing regulatory factors to the enzyme.

Summary:  Post-transcriptional splicing of introns is affected neither by the elongating properties of RNA polymerase II, nor by the binding of splicing regulatory factors to the enzyme. It is only affected by the relative abundance of constitutive and/or regulatory splicing factors at the sites where splicing takes place. Nevertheless it is important to point out that cytological evidence indicates that unspliced or partially spliced pre-mRNAs do not diffuse in the nucleoplasm far from the transcription sites. Therefore, recruitment of splicing factors to transcription sites would still favor the post-transcriptional splicing of introns.

  • ... of RNA polymerase II, nor by the binding of splicing regulatory factors to the enzyme. ...Post-Elongation Processing of the Transcript ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • Post-Elongation Processing of the Transcript. ... the transcription sites. ... Therefore, recruitment of splicing factors to transcription sites would still favor.
  • ... Reactome stable ...
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Pathway: Tat-mediated elongation of the HIV-1 transcript  from Reactome  [76 molecules]
The Tat protein is a viral transactivator protein that regulates HIV-1 gene expression by controlling RNA Pol II-mediated elongation (reviewed in Karn 1999; Taube et al.

Summary:  The Tat protein is a viral transactivator protein that regulates HIV-1 gene expression by controlling RNA Pol II-mediated elongation (reviewed in Karn 1999; Taube et al. 1999; Liou et al. 2004; Barboric and Peterlin 2005). Tat appears to be required in order to overcome the arrest of RNA Pol II by the negative transcriptional elongation factors DSIF and NELF (Wada et al. 1998; Yamaguchi et al. 1999; Yamaguchi et al 2002; Fujinaga et al. 2004). While Pol II can associate with the proviral LTR and initiate transcription in the absence of Tat, these polymerase complexes are non-processive and dissociate from the template prematurely producing very short transcripts (Kao et al. 1987). Tat associates with the RNA element, TAR, which forms a stem loop structure in the leader RNA sequence (Dingwall et al. 1989). Tat also associates with the cellular kinase complex P-TEFb(Cyclin T1:Cdk9) and recruits it to the TAR stem loop structure (Herrmann, 1995) (Wei et al. 1998). This association between Tat, TAR and P-TEFb(Cyclin T1:Cdk9) is believed to bring the catalytic subunit of this kinase complex (Cdk9) in close proximity to Pol II where it hyperphosphorylates the CTD of RNA Pol II (Zhou et al. 2000). The RD subunits of NELF and the SPT5 subunit of DSIF, which associate through RD with the bottom stem of TAR, are also phosphorylated by P-TEFb(Cyclin T1:Cdk9) (Yamaguchi et al. 2002; Fujinaga et al. 2004; Ivanov et al. 2000). Phosphorylation of RD results in its dissociation from TAR. Thus, Tat appears to facilitate transcriptional elongation of the HIV-1 transcript by hyperphosphorylating the RNA Poll II CTD and by removing the negative transcription elongation factors from TAR. In addition, there is evidence that the association of Tat with P-TEFb(Cyclin T1:Cdk9) alters the substrate specificity of P-TEFb enhancing phosphorylation of ser5 residues in the CTD of RNA Pol II (Zhou et al. 2000).

  • ... , a novel transcription elongation factor that regulates RNA polymerase II processivity, is composed. ... by hyperphosphorylating the RNA Poll II CTD and by removing the negative transcription elongation factors. ... elongation through binding to a DRB sensitivity-inducing factor/RNA polymerase II complex and RNA. ... by controlling RNA Pol II-mediated elongation (reviewed in Karn 1999; Taube et al. ... NELF, a multisubunit complex containing RD, cooperates with DSIF to repress RNA polymerase II ...