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Searched for: REACTOME AND Cyclin A/B1 associated events during G2/M transition [All Organisms, All Data Sources]

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Pathways (45)Molecules (92)
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Pathway: Cyclin A/B1 associated events during G2/M transition  from Reactome  [53 molecules]
Cell cycle progression is regulated by cyclin-dependent protein kinases at both the G1/S and the G2/M transitions by cyclin-dependent protein kinases.

Summary:  Cell cycle progression is regulated by cyclin-dependent protein kinases at both the G1/S and the G2/M transitions by cyclin-dependent protein kinases. The G2/M transition is regulated through the phosphorylation of nuclear lamins and histones (reviewed in Sefton, 2001).

  • ... Cyclin A/B1 associated events during G2/M transition ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • Cell cycle progression is regulated by cyclin-dependent protein kinases at both the G1/S and the G2/M transitions by cyclin-dependent protein kinases. ... The G2/M transition.
  • ... Reactome stable identifier.
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Pathway: Cyclin E associated events during G1/S transition  from Reactome  [116 molecules]
The transition from the G1 to S phase is controlled by the Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes.

Summary:  The transition from the G1 to S phase is controlled by the Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes. As the Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes are formed, the Cdk2 is phosphorylated by the Wee1 and Myt1 kinases. This phosphorylation keeps the Cdk2 inactive. In yeast this control is called the cell size checkpoint control. The dephosphorylation of the Cdk2 by Cdc25A activates the Cdk2, and is coordinated with the cells reaching the proper size, and with the DNA synthesis machinery being ready. The Cdk2 then phosphorylates G1/S specific proteins, including proteins required for DNA replication initiation. The beginning of S-phase is marked by the first nucleotide being laid down on the primer during DNA replication at the early-firing origins

  • ... Cyclin E associated events during G1/S transition ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • The transition from the G1 to S phase is controlled by the Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes. ... As the Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes are formed, the Cdk2 is phosphorylated by the Wee1 and Myt1 kinases. ... The beginning of S-phase is marked by the first nucleotide being laid down on the primer during DNA ...
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Pathway: Phosphorylation of proteins involved in the G2/M transition by Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes  from Reactome  [12 molecules]
Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes are detected in the nucleus earlier that cyclin B1:Cdc2 complexes and may play a role in the initial events in prophase.

Summary:  Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes are detected in the nucleus earlier that cyclin B1:Cdc2 complexes and may play a role in the initial events in prophase. Inactivation of Cdc25B by proteasome-mediated degradation is dependent upon cyclin A:Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation (Cans et al, 1999)

  • Phosphorylation of proteins involved in the G2/M transition by Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • ... Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes are detected in the nucleus earlier that cyclin B1:Cdc2 complexes and may play a role. ... is dependent upon cyclin A:Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation (Cans et al, 1999) ...
  • ... Reactome stable ...
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Pathway: G2/M Checkpoints  from Reactome  [77 molecules]
G2/M checkpoints include the checks for damaged DNA, unreplicated DNA, and checks that ensure that the genome is replicated once and only once per cell cycle.

Summary:  G2/M checkpoints include the checks for damaged DNA, unreplicated DNA, and checks that ensure that the genome is replicated once and only once per cell cycle. If cells pass these checkpoints, they follow normal transition to the M phase. However, if any of these checkpoints fail, mitotic entry is prevented by specific G2/M checkpoint events.

  • ... G2/M Checkpoints ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • ... G2/M checkpoints include the checks for damaged DNA. ... If cells pass these checkpoints, they follow normal transition to the M phase. ... However, if any of these checkpoints fail, mitotic entry is prevented by specific G2/M checkpoint events. ...pThe G2/M checkpoints can fail due to the presence of unreplicated DNA or damaged DNA.
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Pathway: Cyclin D associated events in G1  from Reactome  [52 molecules]
Three D-type cyclins are essential for progression from G1 to S-phase.

Summary:  Three D-type cyclins are essential for progression from G1 to S-phase. These D cyclins bind to and activate both CDK4 and CDK6. The formation of all possible complexes between the D-type cyclins and CDK4/6 is promoted by the proteins, p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1). The cyclin-dependent kinases are then activated due to phosphorylation by CAK. The cyclin dependent kinases phosphorylate the RB1 protein and RB1-related proteins p107 (RBL1) and p130 (RBL2). Phosphorylation of RB1 leads to release of activating E2F transcription factors (E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3). After repressor E2Fs (E2F4 and E2F5) dissociate from phosphorylated RBL1 and RBL2, activating E2Fs bind to E2F promoter sites, stimulating transcription of cell cycle genes, which then results in proper G1/S transition. The binding and sequestration of p27Kip may also contribute to the activation of CDK2 cyclin E/CDK2 cyclin A complexes at the G1/S transition (Yew et al., 2001).

  • ... Cyclin D associated events in G1 ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • ... transition (Yew et al.
  • ... Reactome stable identifier. ... The cyclin-dependent kinases are then activated due to phosphorylation by CAK. ... The cyclin dependent kinases phosphorylate the RB1 protein and RB1-related ...
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Pathway: G2/M Transition  from Reactome  [158 molecules]
Cyclin A can also form complexes with Cdc2 (Cdk1).

Summary:  Cyclin A can also form complexes with Cdc2 (Cdk1). Together with three B-type cyclins, Cdc2 (Cdk1) regulates the transition from G2 into mitosis. These complexes are activated by dephosphorylation of T14 and Y15. Cyclin A, B - Cdc2 complexes phosphorylate several proteins involved in mitotic spindle structure and function, the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and topological changes in chromosomes allowing resolution of their entanglement and condensation that is necessary for the ~2 meters of DNA to be segregated at mitosis.

  • ... G2/M Transition ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • ... Cyclin A can also form complexes with Cdc2 (Cdk1). ... Together with three B-type cyclins, Cdc2 (Cdk1) regulates the transition from G2 into mitosis. ... Cyclin A, B - Cdc2 complexes.
  • ... Reactome stable identifier.
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Pathway: G2/M DNA replication checkpoint  from Reactome  [13 molecules]
The G2/M DNA replication checkpoint ensures that mitosis is not initiated until DNA replication is complete.

Summary:  The G2/M DNA replication checkpoint ensures that mitosis is not initiated until DNA replication is complete. If replication is blocked, the DNA replication checkpoint signals to maintain Cyclin B - Cdc2 complexes in their T14Y15 phosphorylated and inactive state. This prevents the phosphorylation of proteins involved in G2/M transition, and prevents mitotic entry.

  • ... G2/M DNA replication checkpoint ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • The G2/M DNA. ... in G2/M transition, and prevents mitotic entry. ... If replication is blocked, the DNA replication checkpoint signals to maintain Cyclin B - Cdc2 complexes. ... in Reactome: http://www. ...reactome.
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Pathway: Cyclin A:Cdk2-associated events at S phase entry  from Reactome  [131 molecules]
Cyclin A:Cdk2 plays a key role in S phase entry by phosphorylation of proteins including Cdh1, Rb, p21 and p27.

Summary:  Cyclin A:Cdk2 plays a key role in S phase entry by phosphorylation of proteins including Cdh1, Rb, p21 and p27. During G1 phase of the cell cycle, cyclin A is synthesized and associates with Cdk2. After forming in the cytoplasm, the Cyclin A:Cdk2 complexes are translocated to the nucleus (Jackman et al.,2002). Prior to S phase entry, the activity of Cyclin A:Cdk2 complexes is negatively regulated through Tyr 15 phosphorylation of Cdk2 (Gu et al., 1995) and also by the association of the cyclin kinase inhibitors (CKIs), p27 and p21. Phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) by the CDK-activating kinase (CAK) is required for the activation of the CDK2 kinase activity (Aprelikova et al., 1995). The entry into S phase is promoted by the removal of inhibitory Tyr 15 phosphates from the Cdk2 subunit of Cyclin A:Cdk2 complex by the Cdc25 phosphatases (Blomberg and Hoffmann, 1999) and by SCF(Skp2)-mediated degradation of p27/p21 (see Ganoth et al., 2001). While Cdk2 is thought to play a primary role in regulating entry into S phase, recent evidence indicates that Cdk1 is equally capable of promoting entry into S phase and the initiation of DNA replication (see Bashir and Pagano, 2005). Thus, Cdk1 complexes may also play a significant role at this point in the cell cycle.

  • ... Cyclin A:Cdk2-associated events at S phase entry ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • ... Cyclin A:Cdk2 plays a key role in S phase entry by phosphorylation of proteins including Cdh1, Rb, p21 and p27. ... During G1 phase of the cell cycle, cyclin A is synthesized and associates with Cdk2. ... After forming in the cytoplasm, the Cyclin A:Cdk2 complexes are translocated ...
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Pathway: APC/C-mediated degradation of cell cycle proteins  from Reactome  [124 molecules]
The Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome (APC/C) functions during mitosis to promote sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit through the degradation of mitotic cyclins and securin.

Summary:  The Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome (APC/C) functions during mitosis to promote sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit through the degradation of mitotic cyclins and securin. This complex is also active in interphase insuring the appropriate length of the G1 phase (reviewed in Peters, 2002). The APC/C contains at least 12 subunits and functions as an ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) promoting the multiubiquitination of its target proteins (see Gieffers et al., 2001).

  • ... is highly periodic during the cell cycle and is controlled by a combination of regulatory events. ... complex-Cdh1 and cyclin A-Cdk2 during cell cycle progression ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • The Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome (APC/C) functions during mitosis. ... and is negatively regulated by sequestration by kinetochore-associated checkpoint proteins.
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Pathway: Phosphorylation of proteins involved in G1/S transition by active Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes  from Reactome  [8 molecules]
The G1/S transition is facilitated by Cyclin E:Cdk2-mediated phoshorylation of proteins including Rb and Cyclin Kinase Inhibitors (CKIs).

Summary:  The G1/S transition is facilitated by Cyclin E:Cdk2-mediated phoshorylation of proteins including Rb and Cyclin Kinase Inhibitors (CKIs).

  • Phosphorylation of proteins involved in G1/S transition by active Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes ...
  • ... Reactome ...
  • ... reactome.
  • The G1/S transition is facilitated by Cyclin E:Cdk2-mediated phoshorylation of proteins including Rb and Cyclin Kinase Inhibitors (CKIs).