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Tumor necrosis factor

FUNCTION: Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. more...

SUBUNIT: Homotrimer.

SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cell membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein.

SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Tumor necrosis factor, soluble form: Secreted.

PTM: The soluble form derives from the membrane form by proteolytic processing.

PTM: The membrane form, but not the soluble form, is phosphorylated on serine residues. Dephosphorylation of the membrane form occurs by binding to soluble TNFRSF1A/TNFR1.

PTM: O-glycosylated; glycans contain galactose, N- acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylneuraminic acid. POLYMORPHISM: Genetic variations in TNF influence susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection [MIM:610424].

DISEASE: Genetic variations in TNF are a cause of susceptibility psoriatic arthritis (PSORAS) [MIM:607507]. PSORAS is an inflammatory, seronegative arthritis associated with psoriasis. It is a heterogeneous disorder ranging from a mild, non-destructive disease to a severe, progressive, erosive arthropathy. Five types of psoriatic arthritis have been defined: asymmetrical oligoarthritis characterized by primary involvement of the small joints of the fingers or toes; asymmetrical arthritis which involves the joints of the extremities; symmetrical polyarthritis characterized by a rheumatoidlike pattern that can involve hands, wrists, ankles, and feet; arthritis mutilans, which is a rare but deforming and destructive condition; arthritis of the sacroiliac joints and spine (psoriatic spondylitis).

SIMILARITY: Belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family.

SEQUENCE CAUTION: Sequence=AAF71992.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=91, 157; Sequence=CAA75070.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; WEB RESOURCE: Name=Wikipedia; Note=Tumor necrosis factor alpha entry; URL=""; WEB RESOURCE: Name=Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology; URL=""; WEB RESOURCE: Name=NIEHS-SNPs; URL=""; WEB RESOURCE: Name=SeattleSNPs; URL=""; WEB RESOURCE: Name=SHMPD; Note=The Singapore human mutation and polymorphism database; URL="";


COPYRIGHT: Protein annotation is derived from the UniProt Consortium ( Distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs License.



  • Homo sapiens

Gene Symbol:

  • TNF


  • TNF-a
  • TNF-alpha
  • Tumor necrosis factor, soluble form
  • Tumor necrosis factor, membrane form
  • Cachectin
  • Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2

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