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Protein: TERT_HUMAN

Telomerase reverse transcriptase

FUNCTION: Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme essential for the replication of chromosome termini in most eukaryotes. Active in progenitor and cancer cells. Inactive, or very low activity, in normal somatic cells. Catalytic component of the teleromerase holoenzyme complex whose main activity is the elongation of telomeres by acting as a reverse transcriptase that adds simple sequence repeats to chromosome ends by copying a template sequence within the RNA component of the enzyme. Catalyzes the RNA- dependent extension of 3'-chromosomal termini with the 6- nucleotide telomeric repeat unit, 5'-TTAGGG-3'. The catalytic cycle involves primer binding, primer extension and release of product once the template boundary has been reached or nascent product translocation followed by further extension. More active on substrates containing 2 or 3 telomeric repeats. Telomerase activity is regulated by a number of factors including telomerase complex-associated proteins, chaperones and polypeptide modifiers. Modulates Wnt signaling. Plays important roles in aging and antiapoptosis. CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: Deoxynucleoside triphosphate + DNA(n) = diphosphate + DNA(n+1). more...

SUBUNIT: Homodimer; dimerization is required to produce a functional complex. Oligomer; can form oligomers in the absence of the telomerase RNA template component (TERC). Catalytic subunit of the telomerase holoenzyme complex composed minimally of TERT and TERC. The telomerase complex is composed of TERT, DKC1, WDR79/TCAB1, NOP10, NHP2, GAR1, TEP1, EST1A, POT1 and a telomerase RNA template component (TERC). The molecular chaperone HSP90/P23 complex is required for correct assembly and stabilization of the active telomerase. Interacts directly with HSP90A and PTGES3. Interacts with HSPA1A; the interaction occurs in the absence of TERC and dissociates once the complex has formed. Interacts with RAN; the interaction promotes nuclear export of TERT. Interacts with XPO1. Interacts with PTPN11; the interaction retains TERT in the nucleus. Interacts with NCL (via RRM1 and C-terminal RRM4/Arg/Gly-rich domains); the interaction is important for nucleolar localization of TERT. Interacts with SMARCA4 (via the bromodomain); the interaction regulates Wnt-mediated signaling. Interacts with MCRS1 (isoform MCRS2); the interaction inhibits in vitro telomerase activity. Interacts with PIF1; the interaction has no effect on the elongation activity of TERT. Interacts with PML; the interaction recruits TERT to PML bodies and inhibits telomerase activity.

SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Nucleus, nucleolus. Nucleus, nucleoplasm. Nucleus. Chromosome, telomere. Cytoplasm. Nucleus, PML body. Note=Shuttling between nuclear and cytoplasm depends on cell cycle, phosphorylation states, transformation and DNA damage. Diffuse localization in the nucleoplasm. Enriched in nucleoli of certain cell types. Translocated to the cytoplasm via nuclear pores in a CRM1/RAN-dependent manner involving oxidative stress- mediated phosphorylation at Tyr-707. Dephosphorylation at this site by SHP2 retains TERT in the nucleus. Translocated to the nucleus by phosphorylation by AKT.

ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS: Event=Alternative splicing; Named isoforms=3; Name=1; IsoId=O14746-1; Sequence=Displayed; Name=2; IsoId=O14746-2; Sequence=VSP_019587, VSP_019588; Note=Phosphorylated on Ser-797; Name=3; IsoId=O14746-3; Sequence=VSP_021727; Note=May be produced at very low levels due to a premature stop codon in the mRNA, leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. No experimental confirmation available;

TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed at a high level in thymocyte subpopulations, at an intermediate level in tonsil T lymphocytes, and at a low to undetectable level in peripheral blood T lymphocytes.

INDUCTION: Activated by cytotoxic events and down-regulated during aging. In peripheral T lymphocytes, induced By CD3 and by PMA/ionomycin. Inhibited by herbimycin B.

DOMAIN: The primer grip sequence in the RT domain is required for telomerase activity and for stable association with short telomeric primers.

DOMAIN: The RNA-interacting domain 1 (RD1)/N-terminal extension (NTE) is required for interaction with the pseudoknot-template domain of each of TERC dimers. It contains anchor sites that bind primer nucleotides upstream of the RNA-DNA hybrid and is thus an essential determinant of repeat addition processivity.

DOMAIN: The RNA-interacting domain 2 (RD2) is essential for both interaction with the CR4-CR5 domain of TERC and for DNA sythesis.

PTM: Ubiquitinated, leading to proteasomal degradation.

PTM: Phosphorylation at Tyr-707 under oxidative stress leads to translocation of TERT to the cytoplasm and reduces its antiapoptotic activity. Dephosphorylated by SHP2/PTPN11 leading to nuclear retention. Phosphorylation by the AKT pathway promotes nuclear location.

DISEASE: Note=Activation of telomerase has been implicated in cell immortalization and cancer cell pathogenesis.

DISEASE: Defects in TERT are associated with susceptibilty to aplastic anemia (AA) [MIM:609135]. AA is a rare disease in which the reduction of the circulating blood cells results from damage to the stem cell pool in bone marrow. In most patients, the stem cell lesion is caused by an autoimmune attack. T-lymphocytes, activated by an endogenous or exogenous, and most often unknown antigenic stimulus, secrete cytokines, including IFN-gamma, which would in turn be able to suppress hematopoiesis.

DISEASE: Note=Genetic variations in TERT are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD).

DISEASE: Defects in TERT are a cause of dyskeratosis congenita autosomal dominant (ADDKC) [MIM:127550]; also known as dyskeratosis congenita Scoggins type. ADDKC is a rare, progressive bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by the triad of reticulated skin hyperpigmentation, nail dystrophy, and mucosal leukoplakia. Early mortality is often associated with bone marrow failure, infections, fatal pulmonary complications, or malignancy.

DISEASE: Defects in TERT are a cause of susceptibility to pulmonary fibrosis idiopathic (IPF) [MIM:178500]. Pulmonary fibrosis is a lung disease characterized by shortness of breath, radiographically evident diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis on biopsy. It results in acute lung injury with subsequent scarring and endstage lung disease.

SIMILARITY: Belongs to the reverse transcriptase family. Telomerase subfamily.

SIMILARITY: Contains 1 reverse transcriptase domain. WEB RESOURCE: Name=NIEHS-SNPs; URL="http://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/tert/";

GENE SYNONYMS: EST2 TCS1 TRT.

COPYRIGHT: Protein annotation is derived from the UniProt Consortium (http://www.uniprot.org/). Distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs License.

 

Organism:

  • Homo sapiens

Gene Symbol:

  • TERT

Synonyms:

  • Telomerase catalytic subunit
  • TP2
  • Telomerase-associated protein 2
  • HEST2
  • 2.7.7.49

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