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Pathway: superpathway of melatonin degradation

The indoleamine |FRAME: N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE| is a vertebrate hormone secreted by the pineal gland. It is involved in regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms. |FRAME: N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE| also has immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In addition to the pineal gland it is synthesized in many vertebrate cells and tissues (see pathway |FRAME: PWY-6030|). It is ubiquitously present in cells and body fluids due to its amphiphilic properties that allow it to cross membranes. Mitochondria have the highest intracellular concentration of |FRAME: N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE| |CITS: [15981996]|. Its functional groups allow both specific receptor binding and a role in oxidation chemistry. |FRAME: N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE| is also found in invertebrates |CITS: [12662344]|, protozoa |CITS: [12899443]|, plants |CITS: [11485009]|, fungi |CITS: [12662344]| and bacteria |CITS: [9181522]| although its function in many cases remains incompletely defined. |FRAME: N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE| is also used as a human dietary supplement. In vertebrates, endogenous or ingested |FRAME: N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE| is catabolized several ways in different tissues (see pathways |FRAME: PWY-6398| |FRAME: PWY-6399| and |FRAME: PWY-6400|). Reviewed in |CITS: [16219483] [18344019]|. The enzymatic pathways of |FRAME: N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE| degradation are shown in this superpathway. Melatonin can also be degraded by nonenzymatic pathways involving melatonin radical species, reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, or ultraviolet B radiation. It can also be degraded by nonenzymatic reactions involving oxoferryl hemoglobin, or hemin. These nonenzymatic reactions are not shown here, but are shown in |CITS: [18344019] [18155917] [17198536] [16793870]|. The pathway of degradation of |FRAME: N-ACETYL-5-METHOXY-TRYPTAMINE| by deacetylation to |FRAME: CPD-12018| has been shown in mammalian skin |CITS: [16217127] [15677341]|. Deacetylation is also a minor pathway in mammalian liver (in |CITS: [8436983]|).


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